Fumigation Factors For The Future

Soil fumigation is typically considered a necessary component of production for many crops grown in Florida such as tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, and strawberries. Fumigation is the pre-plant treatment of soil with a broad spectrum pesticide for the control of soil-borne diseases, weeds, and nematodes. The objective of fumigation is to establish an adequate concentration of the fumigant in the pest zone and maintain that concentration for sufficient time to kill the target pest. Soil fumigants are typically liquid materials packaged under high pressure that volatilize into a gaseous form when released.

The most widely adopted fumigant was undoubtedly methyl bromide. Its use was considered common practice in raised bed plastic mulch systems throughout the Southern U..S until its mandated phase-out in 1993 by the Clean Air Act and Montreal Protocol. The final phase-out date for new production and importation was January 1, 2005. At that point, growers were still able to use available, existing stocks and new stocks approved through the Critical Use Exemption (CUE) process. Through the CUE process, states submit applications for limited amounts of methyl bromide usage where necessary for successful crop production. In Florida, CUE petitions are created and submitted by the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association (FFVA) with help from growers, commodity representatives, researchers and extension agents. From 2005-2013 CUEs have been awarded for Florida tomato, strawberry, pepper and eggplant production. CUE allocations are measured as a percentage of the amount of methyl bromide produced in 1991, referred to as the 1991 baseline. Allocations have steadily decreased and have nearly diminished to zero in 2013 with only 2.2% of the 1991 baseline approved. There will be no CUE allocation available in 2014. In August 2013, a petition was submitted requesting allocations for 2015 (supplemental) and 2016. This includes a “rescue treatment” for methyl bromide for use in critical situations. The amounts requested represent almost a 90% reduction from the pre phase-out period.

Since the phase-out began, growers have slowly adjusted to the use of methyl bromide alternatives, with the majority of the industry completely relying on their use in 2013. The transition has not been seamless, and issues continue to arise with their long term use. In the early transition period, 2005-2008, many growers used existing stocks of methyl bromide. In 2008, it was evident that there were shortages in supply and the need for successful alternatives was apparent. Growers were surveyed in 2011-2012 to determine: 1) what alternatives they were using, 2) what pest problems are arising due to their use 3) what additional Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practices are being implemented and 4) production losses associated with alternative use. Grower responses were used to develop a case for the “rescue treatment” and CUE petitions.

Pages: 1 2 3 4

Leave a Reply

One comment on “Fumigation Factors For The Future

Crop Protection Stories
FruitsRare Leafhopper Found In Shipment At Delaware Port
March 24, 2015
This is the second time this pest has been discovered by U.S. Customs and Border Protection agriculture specialists. Read More
FruitsTips For Pear Psylla Management
March 24, 2015
Dormant oil applications should start as growers begin to experience warmer, mild weather. Read More
FruitsBiocontrols Event Draws Rave Reviews
March 23, 2015
Conference devoted to discussion of biological means to control pests and diseases held last month in Fresno, CA. Read More
brown marmorated stink bug dog search team
FruitsUSDA Uses Man’s Best Friend To Track Stink Bug
March 23, 2015
It's all paws on deck to find brown marmorated stink bug's overwintering sites. Read More
Disease ControlEggplant Producers Need To Keep Phomopsis Blight In Their Sight
March 23, 2015
Learn how to ID, the survival and spread, as well as management methods for this disease. Read More
Florida organic strawberry research
FruitsParry America Aims To Boost Biopesticide Business Via Sales & Marketing Hire
March 19, 2015
Brian Dockery tapped to drive growth of company’s specialty crop sector. Read More
Giant African Land Snail
CitrusFlorida To Get $7.3 Million To Fight Agricultural Pests, Diseases
March 19, 2015
Federal Farm Bill funding will bolster surveillance, detection, and identification of invasive threats to crops. Read More
The Latest
Giant African Land Snail
CitrusFlorida To Get $7.3 Million To Fight Agricultural Pests…
March 19, 2015
Federal Farm Bill funding will bolster surveillance, detection, and identification of invasive threats to crops. Read More
Crop ProtectionNew Fungicide, Orondis, Announced By Syngenta
March 18, 2015
The fungicide provides protection against late blight, downy mildews, and Phytophthora root and stem blights. Read More
Crop ProtectionNimitz Nematicide Receives Registration In California
March 16, 2015
The product is now approved in California for use on a variety of vegetable crops. Read More
Crop ProtectionNufarm Announces Two New Fungicide Registrations For Sp…
March 13, 2015
Both 3336 F and EG fungicides are now registered for use on greenhouse vegetables and backyard fruit. Read More
Crop ProtectionStudy Shows Plants Can Tell Difference Between Attackin…
March 9, 2015
Scientists at the University of Missouri make a discovery that will allow plant breeders to target insect species when developing crops. Read More
Crop ProtectionSurvey Shows Growers Seek New Strategies To Control Thr…
March 4, 2015
Growers surveyed at the 2015 Southeast Regional Fruit And Vegetable Conference list thrips as major pest concern, and are looking for new technologies to combat pests. Read More
Apples & PearsNew Plant Growth Regulator Use Expanded
February 26, 2015
Ten more states grant registrations for Fine Americas’ new Kudos PGR. Read More
CitrusBiocontrols 2015: Exhibition Sneak Preview
February 25, 2015
We take a look inside the exhibit hall at the Biocontrols 2015 Conference & Tradeshow. Read More
CitrusNew App Helps Identify Insects, Diseases, And Nutrient …
February 24, 2015
Spensa Technologies launches app that helps growers take control of pests and improve soil nutrients. Read More
CitrusCompanion Biological Fungicide Now OMRI Listed
February 19, 2015
The biological fungicide from Growth Products is now registered for use in organic production. Read More
Crop ProtectionFMC Launches Biological Fungicide With New Mode Of Acti…
February 18, 2015
The broad spectrum fungicide, Fracture, is labeled for prevention and control of powdery mildew, botrytis, and brown rot blossom blight. Read More
David Holden
CitrusBiopesticides, Biostimulants Show Results In Fruits And…
February 18, 2015
From biostimulants in celery and avocado to biopesticides in citrus and strawberries, consultant David Holden conducts in-the-field research that attests to the effectiveness of biocontrols. Read More
Crop ProtectionNew Conference Helps You Incorporate Biocontrols
February 10, 2015
How well do you know biocontrol? The first-ever Biocontrols Conference & Tradeshow is ready to help. Read More
Apples & PearsBiopesticide Use Quadrupled From 2000 To 2012
February 4, 2015
Biopesticides are on the up and up in U.S. agriculture as confirmed by recent data from EPA. “The use of Read More
fine americas website
CitrusFine Americas Launches New Website
February 3, 2015
First major redesign in 10 years reflects company’s focus on PGR technology. Read More
Apples & PearsA Better Understanding Of Biocontrol
January 27, 2015
The Biocontrols 2015 Conference & Tradeshow will help growers and PCAs incorporate new tools into their crop protection programs. Read More
Giant African Land Snail
CitrusIncreased Global Trade Opportunity Equals New Threats F…
January 26, 2015
Despite expanding business abroad, Florida Agriculture Commissioner Adam Putnam says he's confident in the protocols in place to prevent entry of invasive pests and disease. Read More
Apples & PearsSurvey: Positive Indicators For Biocontrols In U.S. Hor…
January 22, 2015
Preliminary results of a survey conducted in December 2014 of more than 850 readers across six Meister Media Worldwide titles Read More