Light Brown Apple Moth Management From Down Under

Moth Management From Down Under

Growers are facing a dilemma with the confirmed presence of light brown apple moth (LBAM) along California’s coast from Los Angeles to San Francisco. While the pest is confined to a small area for the time being, there is a zero tolerance rule in effect for LBAM. Last year, more than 3,500 square miles of California were in the quarantine area, according to the National Research Council. Because LBAM is a quarantine pest, the discovery has already had implications for domestic and export trade in produce and nursery stock. Any discovery of LBAM worms in U.S. fruit means growers cannot move or sell their crops. This differs slightly from less strict control measures in New Zealand, where the fruit industry has been combating LBAM for years. The aim for growers there is to sell clean fruit, according to Lucia Varela, integrated pest management (IPM) advisor, University of California (UC) Statewide IPM Program and UC Cooperative Extension. Varela and colleagues recently released an article in California Agriculture (Volume 64, Number 1), “New Zealand lessons may aid efforts to control light brown apple moth in California.”

LBAM likes high humidity and cool summers, Varela says. The pest has been tracked from Los Angeles to Hillsburg in Sonoma County and inwards into the Valley, around Mantica. It has been found primarily in coastal ranges, with the highest infestations in San Francisco and Santa Cruz. “We can argue that the coastal climate of high humidity and cool summers is the preferred climate or that that is where the infestation started,” she says. “My opinion is that populations are so high probably because it did enter there, but also because it is a high altitude and a preferred climate — very foggy and cold.”

Effective Controls

The same integrated pest management methods that New Zealand growers are using to combat LBAM are also being used in the U.S., according to Varela. These IPM tactics include mating disruption, reduced risk insecticides including diamides and many new chemistries, insect growth regulators, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), and native parasitoids.

“With a strategic commitment to biological control within an IPM contest, California may ultimately achieve the same levels of light brown apple moth control as obtained in New Zealand,” she says. “Many fruit crops in California already receive control measures for native and introduced leafrollers, and these tactics may prove to be effective for light brown apple moth without a great deal of modification.”

In New Zealand, implementation of IPM programs in the mid- to late 1990s practically eliminated the use of broad-spectrum organophosphate insecticides, enhancing natural control. Varela says the combination of introducing parasitoids that attack LBAM and switching to reduced risk pesticides caused LBAM populations to dramatically decrease.

“If the New Zealand experience is any indication, adequate control of this leafroller can be achieved more effectively through a vigorous program of biological control and the use of selective insecticides for other pest species. That approach identified a need to introduce natural enemies to attack light brown apple moth through all stages of development. The focus on introductions to address parasitism gaps, especially those targeting the late larval and pupal stages, proved to be highly effective.”

Nick Mills, a biological controls professor at the University of California-Berkeley, is studying parasitoids that are native to California and the impact of those parasitoids on attacking LBAM, Varela says. Mills has trial plots in San Francisco and Santa Cruz, and has found at least 13 species are attacking LBAM, with three very important species.

“He is seeing a higher impact in San Francisco; on average he can get 50% control in San Francisco and 20% in Santa Cruz,” Varela says. “He is also studying parasitoids native to Australia, which is a long process because he needs to make sure that these parasitoids, if brought to the U.S., would not affect the fauna of California. All of these studies have to be done before that occurs.”

Mills’ studies began in 2007 and after three years of research, it is clear that it could take many more years to find an important species that is safe to introduce into the U.S. for control of LBAM, Varela says.

Leave a Reply

2 comments on “Light Brown Apple Moth Management From Down Under

  1. CDFA LBAM PROGRAM IS A FRAUD FOR MONEY.

    Varela and Mills are highly qualified scientists looking into the interesting details related to LBAM in California.

    Unfortunately, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) and USDA are looking at LBAM in order to rob $100’s of millions of taxpayer funds pretending LBAM is an emergency in the U.S.

    CDFA LIED and reported that LBAM had caused damage.
    TRUTH: In the Environmental Impact Report, CDFA finally admitted that LBAM had done “NO DAMAGE” in California (Draft EIR Chapter #3 page 3-20 lines 6,7 and page 3-21 lines 3,4 below table 3-16 “NO CROP DAMAGE” in California from LBAM.)

    CDFA LIED and reported that LBAM could be eradicated from California.
    TRUTH: CDFA finally admits that LBAM cannot be eradicated in the Certification Document of the EIR.

    A.G. Kawamura, the secretary of the CDFA needs to resign or be fired. His “Calling Wolf” regarding LBAM has destroyed the credibility of the entire CDFA organization, and many of the workers in that agency do not deserve the bad reputation that Kawamura has generated for this agency. Kawamura is an embarrassment to Schwarzenegger, who appointed him.

  2. CDFA LBAM PROGRAM IS A FRAUD FOR MONEY.

    Varela and Mills are highly qualified scientists looking into the interesting details related to LBAM in California.

    Unfortunately, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) and USDA are looking at LBAM in order to rob $100’s of millions of taxpayer funds pretending LBAM is an emergency in the U.S.

    CDFA LIED and reported that LBAM had caused damage.
    TRUTH: In the Environmental Impact Report, CDFA finally admitted that LBAM had done “NO DAMAGE” in California (Draft EIR Chapter #3 page 3-20 lines 6,7 and page 3-21 lines 3,4 below table 3-16 “NO CROP DAMAGE” in California from LBAM.)

    CDFA LIED and reported that LBAM could be eradicated from California.
    TRUTH: CDFA finally admits that LBAM cannot be eradicated in the Certification Document of the EIR.

    A.G. Kawamura, the secretary of the CDFA needs to resign or be fired. His “Calling Wolf” regarding LBAM has destroyed the credibility of the entire CDFA organization, and many of the workers in that agency do not deserve the bad reputation that Kawamura has generated for this agency. Kawamura is an embarrassment to Schwarzenegger, who appointed him.

Featured Stories
Berries
May 26, 2017
Jury Sides with University in Strawberry Breeding Lawsuit
Decision says former breeders infringed on UC patents to develop material for corporate breeding firm. Read More
Managed bee hive boxes around a blueberry field
Nuts
May 25, 2017
Stolen Hives Recovered in Nearly $1M Heist
Man likely stole hives from across the state of California in the last three years. Read More
Panama Canal Expansion opening celebration
Farm Management
May 25, 2017
Plight of Trade Policy Grounding Many U.S. Growers
Much-needed investments in labor-saving technology could be key to long-term survival. Read More
Cannabis plant closeup
Farm Management
May 25, 2017
Florida Farm Winning Case for Medicinal Cannabis License
Judge rules in favor of 3 Boys Farm in the quest to expand its crop/business portfolio. Read More
hands holding a globe
Citrus
May 25, 2017
Are We Overstating the World’s Overpopulation Problem?
If growers can’t achieve a fair return on investment and stay in business, it won’t matter what the population is in 2050. We all will be trouble. Read More
Falcon-takes-flight-at-Duncan-Family-Farms
Citrus
May 24, 2017
Falcons Scare off Other Birds at Duncan Family Farms
It collaborates with a firm that uses trained falcons to intimidate and scare off nuisance birds such as the horned larks and pigeons that frequent the area. Read More
Organic
May 24, 2017
Organic Growers in Turmoil (Opinion)
Although consumers are demanding, and getting more organic produce options, growers are grappling with fundamental questions. Read More
Corn leaf aphids on sweet corn
Sweet Corn
May 24, 2017
Stay on Your A Game to Conquer Corn Leaf Aphid
Learn how to identify, the survival and spread, as well as management methods for this vegetable pest. Read More
Florida Ag Hall of Famer William Cook
Citrus
May 23, 2017
Search is on For Next Crop of Florida Agriculture Hall of Famers
Nomination period now open for longtime industry honor. Read More
Apples & Pears
May 23, 2017
Grower Shares Personal Impact of Labor Shortage
USApple leader Phil Glaize of Virginia stresses need for reform with current labor regulations, programs at Congressional briefing on agriculture labor crisis. Read More
Stone Fruit
May 23, 2017
Northeast Peach Crop Rebounds
After a mild winter and relatively uneventful bloom time, the crop is setting up nicely for the region. Read More
Berries
May 23, 2017
Researchers Examining Potential for Longer Berry Season in Northeast
Team at Penn State University using low and high tunnels and plastic coverings to extend raspberry and strawberry seasons. Read More
honeybees
Citrus
May 23, 2017
Webinar Series Highlights New Research on Honeybee Health
National Pollinator Week webinar showcases research to improve honeybee colony health by 2020. Read More
stack of lemons
Citrus
May 23, 2017
California Lemon Growers Sue USDA
Lemon industry files suit against rule allowing importation of Argentine lemons. Read More
Bee Vectoring Technologies experimental hives
Citrus
May 23, 2017
Insects (Bad and Good) Make for Interesting Field Trips
Disease-fighting bees and the deadly citrus psyllid were at the center of two recent, research-fueled out-of-office adventures. Read More
The Latest
Berries
May 26, 2017
Jury Sides with University in Strawberry…
Decision says former breeders infringed on UC patents to develop material for corporate breeding firm. Read More
Nuts
May 25, 2017
Stolen Hives Recovered in Nearly $1M Hei…
Man likely stole hives from across the state of California in the last three years. Read More
Farm Management
May 25, 2017
Plight of Trade Policy Grounding Many U.…
Much-needed investments in labor-saving technology could be key to long-term survival. Read More
Farm Management
May 25, 2017
Florida Farm Winning Case for Medicinal …
Judge rules in favor of 3 Boys Farm in the quest to expand its crop/business portfolio. Read More
Citrus
May 25, 2017
Are We Overstating the World’s Ove…
If growers can’t achieve a fair return on investment and stay in business, it won’t matter what the population is in 2050. We all will be trouble. Read More
Citrus
May 24, 2017
Falcons Scare off Other Birds at Duncan …
It collaborates with a firm that uses trained falcons to intimidate and scare off nuisance birds such as the horned larks and pigeons that frequent the area. Read More
Organic
May 24, 2017
Organic Growers in Turmoil (Opinion)
Although consumers are demanding, and getting more organic produce options, growers are grappling with fundamental questions. Read More
Sweet Corn
May 24, 2017
Stay on Your A Game to Conquer Corn Leaf…
Learn how to identify, the survival and spread, as well as management methods for this vegetable pest. Read More
Citrus
May 23, 2017
Search is on For Next Crop of Florida Ag…
Nomination period now open for longtime industry honor. Read More
Apples & Pears
May 23, 2017
Grower Shares Personal Impact of Labor S…
USApple leader Phil Glaize of Virginia stresses need for reform with current labor regulations, programs at Congressional briefing on agriculture labor crisis. Read More
Stone Fruit
May 23, 2017
Northeast Peach Crop Rebounds
After a mild winter and relatively uneventful bloom time, the crop is setting up nicely for the region. Read More
Berries
May 23, 2017
Researchers Examining Potential for Long…
Team at Penn State University using low and high tunnels and plastic coverings to extend raspberry and strawberry seasons. Read More
Citrus
May 23, 2017
Webinar Series Highlights New Research o…
National Pollinator Week webinar showcases research to improve honeybee colony health by 2020. Read More
Citrus
May 23, 2017
California Lemon Growers Sue USDA
Lemon industry files suit against rule allowing importation of Argentine lemons. Read More
Citrus
May 23, 2017
Insects (Bad and Good) Make for Interest…
Disease-fighting bees and the deadly citrus psyllid were at the center of two recent, research-fueled out-of-office adventures. Read More
Crop Protection
May 23, 2017
Valent Grants Organic Farming Scholarshi…
University of Florida Doctor of Plant Medicine student receives $1,500 toward the development of training materials. Read More
Varieties & Rootstocks
May 23, 2017
In Quest for Low-Seeded Citrus, It Takes…
Momentum for viable mandarin hybrids for Florida reaching a peak in the land down under. Read More
GenNext Growers
May 22, 2017
How to Make Dollars and Sense of Today&#…
Despite current challenges impacting the future of the North American fruit and vegetable industry, there are opportunities to be had. Read More