Light Brown Apple Moth Management From Down Under

Moth Management From Down Under

Growers are facing a dilemma with the confirmed presence of light brown apple moth (LBAM) along California’s coast from Los Angeles to San Francisco. While the pest is confined to a small area for the time being, there is a zero tolerance rule in effect for LBAM. Last year, more than 3,500 square miles of California were in the quarantine area, according to the National Research Council. Because LBAM is a quarantine pest, the discovery has already had implications for domestic and export trade in produce and nursery stock. Any discovery of LBAM worms in U.S. fruit means growers cannot move or sell their crops. This differs slightly from less strict control measures in New Zealand, where the fruit industry has been combating LBAM for years. The aim for growers there is to sell clean fruit, according to Lucia Varela, integrated pest management (IPM) advisor, University of California (UC) Statewide IPM Program and UC Cooperative Extension. Varela and colleagues recently released an article in California Agriculture (Volume 64, Number 1), “New Zealand lessons may aid efforts to control light brown apple moth in California.”

LBAM likes high humidity and cool summers, Varela says. The pest has been tracked from Los Angeles to Hillsburg in Sonoma County and inwards into the Valley, around Mantica. It has been found primarily in coastal ranges, with the highest infestations in San Francisco and Santa Cruz. “We can argue that the coastal climate of high humidity and cool summers is the preferred climate or that that is where the infestation started,” she says. “My opinion is that populations are so high probably because it did enter there, but also because it is a high altitude and a preferred climate — very foggy and cold.”

Effective Controls

The same integrated pest management methods that New Zealand growers are using to combat LBAM are also being used in the U.S., according to Varela. These IPM tactics include mating disruption, reduced risk insecticides including diamides and many new chemistries, insect growth regulators, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), and native parasitoids.

“With a strategic commitment to biological control within an IPM contest, California may ultimately achieve the same levels of light brown apple moth control as obtained in New Zealand,” she says. “Many fruit crops in California already receive control measures for native and introduced leafrollers, and these tactics may prove to be effective for light brown apple moth without a great deal of modification.”

In New Zealand, implementation of IPM programs in the mid- to late 1990s practically eliminated the use of broad-spectrum organophosphate insecticides, enhancing natural control. Varela says the combination of introducing parasitoids that attack LBAM and switching to reduced risk pesticides caused LBAM populations to dramatically decrease.

“If the New Zealand experience is any indication, adequate control of this leafroller can be achieved more effectively through a vigorous program of biological control and the use of selective insecticides for other pest species. That approach identified a need to introduce natural enemies to attack light brown apple moth through all stages of development. The focus on introductions to address parasitism gaps, especially those targeting the late larval and pupal stages, proved to be highly effective.”

Nick Mills, a biological controls professor at the University of California-Berkeley, is studying parasitoids that are native to California and the impact of those parasitoids on attacking LBAM, Varela says. Mills has trial plots in San Francisco and Santa Cruz, and has found at least 13 species are attacking LBAM, with three very important species.

“He is seeing a higher impact in San Francisco; on average he can get 50% control in San Francisco and 20% in Santa Cruz,” Varela says. “He is also studying parasitoids native to Australia, which is a long process because he needs to make sure that these parasitoids, if brought to the U.S., would not affect the fauna of California. All of these studies have to be done before that occurs.”

Mills’ studies began in 2007 and after three years of research, it is clear that it could take many more years to find an important species that is safe to introduce into the U.S. for control of LBAM, Varela says.

Leave a Reply

2 comments on “Light Brown Apple Moth Management From Down Under

  1. CDFA LBAM PROGRAM IS A FRAUD FOR MONEY.

    Varela and Mills are highly qualified scientists looking into the interesting details related to LBAM in California.

    Unfortunately, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) and USDA are looking at LBAM in order to rob $100’s of millions of taxpayer funds pretending LBAM is an emergency in the U.S.

    CDFA LIED and reported that LBAM had caused damage.
    TRUTH: In the Environmental Impact Report, CDFA finally admitted that LBAM had done “NO DAMAGE” in California (Draft EIR Chapter #3 page 3-20 lines 6,7 and page 3-21 lines 3,4 below table 3-16 “NO CROP DAMAGE” in California from LBAM.)

    CDFA LIED and reported that LBAM could be eradicated from California.
    TRUTH: CDFA finally admits that LBAM cannot be eradicated in the Certification Document of the EIR.

    A.G. Kawamura, the secretary of the CDFA needs to resign or be fired. His “Calling Wolf” regarding LBAM has destroyed the credibility of the entire CDFA organization, and many of the workers in that agency do not deserve the bad reputation that Kawamura has generated for this agency. Kawamura is an embarrassment to Schwarzenegger, who appointed him.

  2. CDFA LBAM PROGRAM IS A FRAUD FOR MONEY.

    Varela and Mills are highly qualified scientists looking into the interesting details related to LBAM in California.

    Unfortunately, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) and USDA are looking at LBAM in order to rob $100’s of millions of taxpayer funds pretending LBAM is an emergency in the U.S.

    CDFA LIED and reported that LBAM had caused damage.
    TRUTH: In the Environmental Impact Report, CDFA finally admitted that LBAM had done “NO DAMAGE” in California (Draft EIR Chapter #3 page 3-20 lines 6,7 and page 3-21 lines 3,4 below table 3-16 “NO CROP DAMAGE” in California from LBAM.)

    CDFA LIED and reported that LBAM could be eradicated from California.
    TRUTH: CDFA finally admits that LBAM cannot be eradicated in the Certification Document of the EIR.

    A.G. Kawamura, the secretary of the CDFA needs to resign or be fired. His “Calling Wolf” regarding LBAM has destroyed the credibility of the entire CDFA organization, and many of the workers in that agency do not deserve the bad reputation that Kawamura has generated for this agency. Kawamura is an embarrassment to Schwarzenegger, who appointed him.

Featured Stories
The family at the helm of Sterman Masser Potato Farms includes (from left) David, Keith, Helen, and Julie.
Photo credit: Rosemary Gordon
Potatoes
February 7, 2016
A Lesson In Marketing From Sterman Masser Potato Farms
Always looking for new product offerings and ways to expand, Sterman Masser Potato Farms caters to consumers. Read More
Thomas Björkman, the director of the Eastern Broccoli Project, discusses details on the challenges of broccoli production in the East.
Vegetables
February 7, 2016
The Eastern Broccoli Project Moves Forward
As acreage increases in the East, mid-sized growers seek channels to distribute their product and continue the search for varieties. Read More
Apples On Display
Fruits
February 6, 2016
Best Research Is Industry Driven [Opinion]
Like many of you, I’m not crazy about a lot of government programs. It’s not that their genesis isn’t noble; God Read More
RosBREED will have an impact on nearly all the major U.S. rosaceous crop production areas.
Fruits
February 6, 2016
RosBREED: A National Effort To Improve The Fruit Industry
The project focuses on improving disease resistance and fruit quality through better genetics and breeding. Read More
Biofungicides supplement methyl bromide alternatives
Berries
February 5, 2016
Moving Beyond Methyl Bromide With Biofungicides
Editor’s note: University of California Farm Advisor Mark Bolda will present much more information on this topic at the Biocontrols Read More
Geotextiles being installed.

Photo: Jim Willwerth
Grapes
February 5, 2016
Geotextiles Can Help Prevent Winter Grapevine Damage
Although Northeast and Midwest grape growing regions have so far been spared from extreme cold this year, the winters of Read More
The canopy of the vines that received the under-canopy sprinkler irrigation just on hot nights during heatwaves appear to be healthier than the control vines and have a higher yield.
Photo: Michael McCarthy
Grapes
February 5, 2016
Researchers Test New Method To Mitigate Vine Heat Stress
The use of evaporative cooling in vineyards during hot weather isn’t a new concept, but researchers in Australia are testing Read More
Biocontrols USA 2016 logo
Crop Protection
February 5, 2016
Register Now For Biocontrols Conference 2016 Field And Greenhouse Tour
Space is limited, so register now to attend the first-ever Biocontrols USA 2016 Conference Field and Greenhouse Tour. Following the Read More
La Crescent produces a good quality white wine with apricot-like flavor. The off-dry, sweet white wine pairs well with appetizers, seafood and chicken. La Crescent has excellent winter hardiness with moderate disease resistance that requires a standard spray program.
Grapes
February 4, 2016
Northern Grapes Project Fuels A Market For Cold-Hardy Grapes
 There’s a burgeoning market for cold-weather grapes. The Northern Grapes Project, funded in 2011 by a USDA National Institute of Read More
two glass goblets of olive oil
Citrus
February 4, 2016
Can Olive Oil Grease Skids For Florida’s Slipping Citrus Trade?
Researchers, interested growers help launch new industry. Read More
The Latest
Potatoes
February 7, 2016
A Lesson In Marketing From Sterman Masse…
Always looking for new product offerings and ways to expand, Sterman Masser Potato Farms caters to consumers. Read More
Vegetables
February 7, 2016
The Eastern Broccoli Project Moves Forwa…
As acreage increases in the East, mid-sized growers seek channels to distribute their product and continue the search for varieties. Read More
Fruits
February 6, 2016
Best Research Is Industry Driven [Opinio…
Like many of you, I’m not crazy about a lot of government programs. It’s not that their genesis isn’t noble; God Read More
Fruits
February 6, 2016
RosBREED: A National Effort To Improve T…
The project focuses on improving disease resistance and fruit quality through better genetics and breeding. Read More
Berries
February 5, 2016
Moving Beyond Methyl Bromide With Biofun…
Editor’s note: University of California Farm Advisor Mark Bolda will present much more information on this topic at the Biocontrols Read More
Grapes
February 5, 2016
Geotextiles Can Help Prevent Winter Grap…
Although Northeast and Midwest grape growing regions have so far been spared from extreme cold this year, the winters of Read More
Grapes
February 5, 2016
Researchers Test New Method To Mitigate …
The use of evaporative cooling in vineyards during hot weather isn’t a new concept, but researchers in Australia are testing Read More
Crop Protection
February 5, 2016
Register Now For Biocontrols Conference …
Space is limited, so register now to attend the first-ever Biocontrols USA 2016 Conference Field and Greenhouse Tour. Following the Read More
Grapes
February 4, 2016
Northern Grapes Project Fuels A Market F…
 There’s a burgeoning market for cold-weather grapes. The Northern Grapes Project, funded in 2011 by a USDA National Institute of Read More
Citrus
February 4, 2016
Can Olive Oil Grease Skids For Florida’s…
Researchers, interested growers help launch new industry. Read More
Citrus
February 3, 2016
Sunkist Expands Organic Portfolio
With the organic citrus sector growing three times as fast as conventional, the 123-year-old cooperative is keeping up with the times. Read More
Citrus
February 3, 2016
Syngenta OKs Buyout By ChemChina
Deal valued at more than $43 billion; Syngenta management team to stay intact. Read More
Farm Marketing
February 3, 2016
Florida Peach Marketing Order Fails
Growers don’t meet 65% approval needed for passage. Read More
Farm Management
February 3, 2016
Western Growers Launches Tech Talk Serie…
Speakers from a variety of agricultural technology areas will make presentations on a variety of topics including drone/satellite imagery and food safety software. Read More
Farm Management
February 3, 2016
Hot Topics Tackled At Mid-Atlantic Fruit…
Food safety and GMOs were two of the topics discussed on the first day of the trade show and conference. Read More
Citrus
February 3, 2016
Historic Rainfall Hampering South Florid…
El Niño express delivering floods, uncertainty for crops. Read More
Nuts
February 3, 2016
Avoid Tree Nut Cargo Theft
American Fruit Grower® and Western Fruit Grower® recently reported on a rash of nut thefts, in which truckloads of nuts Read More
Nuts
February 3, 2016
Tips To Help Secure A Good Beekeeper Agr…
Pollination is one of the most important aspects of almond growing, and this time of year, making sure you have Read More
[gravityform id="62" title="false" description="false"]