Stone Fruit: Are You Stressed?

Stone Fruit: Are You Stressed?

When you drive through the orchard and see trees that are performing poorly or dying, it can be a source of tremendous stress to you as a grower. For the trees you just observed, they too, may be experiencing significant stress!

Plant stress is driven by numerous factors that adversely affect plant health, growth, productivity, and survival. Some stress factors directly impact tree assimilate dynamics (acquisition and utilization of water, nutrients, energy, and carbohydrates — see figure). These factors are living (biotic) or non-living (abiotic). Often, multiple stress factors can occur simultaneously or successively. Some stresses are chronic (systemic viral infection) while others may be acute (temporary drought).

Avoiding Stress

The first key to managing orchard stress is to avoid it in the first place through good management. Indeed, many stressful orchard conditions can be avoided if you choose a good site, pre-plant fumigate the soil, and choose the proper rootstock. Further, choosing the correct cultivar based on chill hours for your region and pest/disease tolerance is vital. Planting trees at the proper soil depth (graft union 4 inches above soil line) is necessary to keep feeder roots in the proper soil zone and to enhance tree stability.

Careful use of orchard machinery and proper timing and use of pruning tools can minimize damage to tree trunks and promote rapid healing of wounds on scaffold branches and limbs, respectively. Proper crop load management through pruning and thinning can facilitate strong scaffolds that won’t break under the pressure of a heavy crop. Finally, careful weed, pest, and disease management combined with adequate water and fertility can help to keep trees productive and healthy.

When speaking about orchard stress, it is also important to make several distinctions. It may be localized (part of a single tree or a few trees near each other) or it may be widespread (hundreds of trees in a low spot where there was standing water). One type of stress can exacerbate another — for example, trees that have been hit by hail causing numerous bark and trunk wounds provide attractive sites for lesser peach tree borer females to lay eggs or disease entry.

Some types of stress are reversible (i.e., nitrogen deficiency) while others (systemic viral infection) will persist throughout the life of the tree. It is also important to consider the timing of stress relative to key phenological growth stages. For fruit during the period of final swell (last two weeks before harvest), drought stress could have a very significant adverse impact on final fruit size. In severe cases of heat/drought stress, trees may actually drop fruit prematurely.

Identifying Stress

A key to managing orchard stress is being able to identify what is occurring with the goal of rectifying the situation or managing it to the greatest extent possible. There are numerous biotic stresses that adversely impact peach trees. These include insects, fungal diseases, bacterial diseases, viruses, viroids, mycoplasmas, nematodes, weeds, and even browsing animals (i.e., deer). There are numerous abiotic stresses, as well. These include solar radiation (sunburn), air and soil temperature (too hot or cold), inadequate chilling, rainfall (too much or too little), soil pH (too high or low; 6-7 usually best), soil nutrition (deficiency or excess), soil structure and aeration, excess wind, hail, herbicide drift, and even air pollution (ozone, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen fluoride).

Finally, it is of vital importance to deal with factors that you can control and to consider the long-term impact on the tree. For example, if a block is compromised by hail, abandoning it until next year without a minimal fungicide/insecticide program to protect the tree and help minimize wound infection or boring of insects would be unwise. Some modest efforts could help to facilitate healing and significant recovery for cropping next year. Keeping good records from one year to the next by block will help to remind you of trees that had problems, what corrective measures were taken, and what the response was. Lastly, try to learn from and not repeat errors. We all make them but the wise person learns from them and doesn’t repeat them.

Leave a Reply

Featured Stories
Crop ProtectionResources For Knowing Your Soil
July 30, 2015
Getting to know your soil and learning other environmental and natural resources data can be downloaded and is available for use with many computer software platforms for general resource analysis and farm management. Read More
money
CitrusBankrupt Florida Farm To Yield Plenty Of Land, Equipment In Upcoming Auction
July 30, 2015
As many as seven different buyers could be part of this Chapter 11 proceeding. Read More
Sanjay Shukla
ProductionGeometrically Speaking, Thinking Smaller Might Produce Big Savings For Vegetable Growers
July 30, 2015
University of Florida scientist develops compact planting bed formula that cuts water, fertilizer, and pesticide use in half. Read More
GrapesDrought’s Impact On California Winegrapes
July 30, 2015
The impact is minimal this year, but the future is uncertain if the drought continues. Read More
Apples & PearsEPA Approves New 1-MCP Technology
July 30, 2015
EPA approved Fysium, a new 1-MCP product from Pace International LLC. Considered new technology, this product is produced on-site by Read More
Crop ProtectionNew Fungicide Targets Key Diseases
July 30, 2015
This disease control tool hits two different parts of the fungal life cycle. Read More
CitrusWestern Growers Praises Introduction Of California Emergency Drought Relief Act
July 30, 2015
Legislation contains short- and long-term provisions to deal with the historic drought. Read More
Farm ManagementFour Great Pricing Tips From U-Pick Experts
July 30, 2015
Although each of the growers I talked to has his or her own take on a pricing structure, they all Read More
BerriesUC-Davis Responds To California Auditor’s Recommended Improvements To Strawberry Program
July 30, 2015
Following a six-month review of the University of California (UC)-Davis Strawberry breeding program, the California state auditor’s office has released Read More
Farm ManagementHow To Find Your Perfect U-Pick Pricing Structure
July 30, 2015
If there’s one mission impossible for pick-your-own operations, it might just be how to set a pricing structure. Odds are you’ve Read More
The Latest
Crop ProtectionResources For Knowing Your Soil
July 30, 2015
Getting to know your soil and learning other environmental and natural resources data can be downloaded and is available for use with many computer software platforms for general resource analysis and farm management. Read More
money
CitrusBankrupt Florida Farm To Yield Plenty Of Land, Equipmen…
July 30, 2015
As many as seven different buyers could be part of this Chapter 11 proceeding. Read More
Sanjay Shukla
ProductionGeometrically Speaking, Thinking Smaller Might Produce …
July 30, 2015
University of Florida scientist develops compact planting bed formula that cuts water, fertilizer, and pesticide use in half. Read More
GrapesDrought’s Impact On California Winegrapes
July 30, 2015
The impact is minimal this year, but the future is uncertain if the drought continues. Read More
Apples & PearsEPA Approves New 1-MCP Technology
July 30, 2015
EPA approved Fysium, a new 1-MCP product from Pace International LLC. Considered new technology, this product is produced on-site by Read More
Crop ProtectionNew Fungicide Targets Key Diseases
July 30, 2015
This disease control tool hits two different parts of the fungal life cycle. Read More
CitrusWestern Growers Praises Introduction Of California Emer…
July 30, 2015
Legislation contains short- and long-term provisions to deal with the historic drought. Read More
Farm ManagementFour Great Pricing Tips From U-Pick Experts
July 30, 2015
Although each of the growers I talked to has his or her own take on a pricing structure, they all Read More
BerriesUC-Davis Responds To California Auditor’s Recomme…
July 30, 2015
Following a six-month review of the University of California (UC)-Davis Strawberry breeding program, the California state auditor’s office has released Read More
Farm ManagementHow To Find Your Perfect U-Pick Pricing Structure
July 30, 2015
If there’s one mission impossible for pick-your-own operations, it might just be how to set a pricing structure. Odds are you’ve Read More
CitrusGroup Food Safety Audits May Help Prepare You For The P…
July 29, 2015
Group food safety audits, slated to be available next spring, may save small- to mid-size growers time and money. Read More
PotatoesPotato Production And The Environmental Component Of Pl…
July 29, 2015
Part of being prepared for unusual weather patterns means being on the lookout for problematic pathogens and other pests. Read More
Farm ManagementUnited Farm Workers Turns Up Heat On California Growers
July 29, 2015
With temperatures soaring into the triple digits, union organizers are focusing on heat illness regulations. Read More
Apples & PearsResearch Is Vital To Keep Asian Apple Export Markets Op…
July 29, 2015
With the large domestic production of U.S. apples in recent years, Asian export markets (China, etc.) are vital. This is Read More
Disease ControlNew Disease Control Tools For Fruit And Nut Growers
July 29, 2015
Apple scab is a big problem for growers in the Midwest and East. But, a new fungicide boasts efficacy against Read More
IrrigationRiver Point Farms Sets Standard For Water Application, …
July 28, 2015
Efficient systems help the Oregon farm, one of the largest onion growers in the U.S., achieve high yields while minimizing water inputs. Read More
Produce aisle leafy greens super market grocery store
Food SafetyLGMA Members Get High Marks In Food Safety  
July 28, 2015
The California Leafy Green Marketing Agreement’s (LGMA) annual report shows the group received the lowest number of citations in its history. Read More
FruitsFruit Grower Tour Held Next Week In New York
July 28, 2015
Registration begins at 9:30 a.m. on Aug. 5 for the 17th annual Wayne County Fruit Grower Tour presented by agr.assistance. Read More